HeNNA – Naming for Heterogeneous Disruption-prone Networks
Rao Naveed Bin Rais (Planete, INRIA Sophia Antipolis, France)
Mariem Abdelmoula (Planete, INRIA Sophia Antipolis, France)
Thierry Turletti (Planete, INRIA Sophia Antipolis, France)
Katia Obraczka (University of California, Santa Cruz, USA)
. Rao Naveed Bin Rais, “Communication Mechanisms for Message Delivery in Heterogeneous Networks Prone to Episodic Connectivity”, PhD Thesis Manuscript. February 2011.
. Rao Naveed Bin Rais, Mariem Abdelmoula, Thierry Turletti, Katia Obraczka, “Naming for Heterogeneous Networks Prone to Episodic Connectivity”, in Proceedings of IEEE WCNC, Mexico, 2011.
HeNNA (Heterogeneous Networks Naming Architecture) decouples nodes identification from location and allows message delivery across heterogeneous networks, including infrastructure-based and ad-hoc networks, while coping with nodes intermittent connectivity. In this way, the source does not have to care about the current location of the destination that may be connected using any interface at the time of message arrival. For this purpose, applications bind to nodes identifier instead of IP addresses to communicate and nodes location information is maintained by their corresponding Location and Management Server (LMS) nodes. The LMS is a node with a globally reachable address and it maintains location information about the registered nodes. It is also responsible for storing messages on behalf of the nodes when they are unavailable. Details can be found in  and . The idea is that nodes contact the LMS of other nodes to locate them. Nodes in ad-hoc network can also be reached via neighboring gateways that are connected to the infrastructure; this extends message delivery beyond infrastructure-based networks.
In HeNNA, each node owns a globally unique identifier (GUID), and we assume that the users will learn about these GUIDs via a variety of ways such as search engines, private communication etc. Otherwise, a global DNS-like service can also exist with which nodes register their GUIDs against hostnames. This service can either have the normal DNS functionality or a Dynamic DNS service, except that nodes are registered with their GUIDs instead of their IP address. We do not consider the hostname to GUID resolution. On the other hand, users have the luxury of having their own private namespace of human-readable names which map to the GUIDs of the nodes. This way of managing namespaces allows independence from centrally maintained nameservers.
GUIDs are persistent identifiers, though a node may change its GUID by registering a new GUID against its hostname in the global DNS-like service. The GUID of a node contains a routeable address of the node's LMS along with its identifier which is unique within the context of the LMS. GUIDs can also be used to identify objects instead of nodes without requiring major changes in HeNNA.
We implemented the preliminary version of HeNNA architecture with an extended version of MeDeHa in the NS-3 Simulator (compatible with version 3.5 and 3.9). The code along with the scripts to execute the code can be downloaded from the links given below.